Fontes

Segue as principais fontes conhecidas para as obras de Shakespeare: Legenda para a tabela abaixo:

  • SR –  Registro crítico
  • Q-a  Quarto
  • F-a  Fólio
  • O-an  Oitavo
 Obra Data Publicação e Registro Crítico Fontes, Influências
Eduardo III 1st Quarto Edition 1590 (1589-95 ) SR(1.Dec.1595) 1596(Q1) 1599(Q2)
  • Froissart, Jean (c.1337-1410). Chroniques (c.1495) (John Bourchier’s English translation in 1523-5)
  • Painter, William (1540-94). The Palace of Pleasure (1566-7)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
Dois Cavalheiros de Verona 1590 1594-5 (1589-94) 1623(F1)
  • Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-75). Decameron 10th day, the story of “Titus and Gisippus”
  • Elyot, Thomas (c.1490-1546). The Boke named the Governour(1531)
  • Montemayor, Jorge de (c.1521-61). Diana Enamorada (1542, English translation in 1582. publication in 1598) the story of “Felix and Felismena”
  • Anonymous. The History of Felix and Philiomena (the record of the performance in 1585)
  • Brooke, Arthur (?-1563). The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (English translation in 1562)
  • Lyly, John (c.1554-1606). Euphues (1578)
A Megera Domada 1593 (1589-94) 1623(F1)
  • Anonymous ballad. A Merry Jest of a Shrewede and Curste Wyfe (printed 1550)
  • Gascoigne, George (1542-77). Supposes (performed 1566, published 1573, 1587. Translation of Italian drama , I suppositi (1509)
  • Anonymous. The Taming of a Shrew (1594) SR(2.May.1594)
  • the influence of Commedia dell’arte
2 Henrique VI 1590-1 SR(12.Mar.1594) 1594(Q1) 1600(Q2) 1619(Q3) 1623(F1)
  • Hall, Edward (1498-1547). The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (3rd. ed., 1550)
  • Fabyan, Robert (?-1513). New Chronicles of England and France (1516)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Grafton, Richard (c.1512-c.1572). A Chronicle at Large of History of the Affayres of England (1516)
  • Hardyng, John (1378-c.1465). The Chrocicle of John Hardyng (1543)
  • Foxe, John (1516-87). The Book of Martyrs (4th ed., 1583)
3 Henrique VI 1590-1 SR(19.Apr.1602) 1595(O)* 1600(Q2) 1619 (Q3) 1623(F1)
  • Hall, Edward (1498-1547). The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (3rd. ed., 1550)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • William Baldwin ed. The Mirror for Magistrates (1559 ed.)
  • Edmund Spenser (c.1552-99). The Faerie Queene (1590) – descriptions of the sun at 2.1.
  • Brooke, Arthur (?-1563). The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (English translation in 1562) – Queen Margaret’s speech at 5.4.
  • Kyd, Thomas (1558-94) The Spanish Tragedy (1588-9) and Soliman and Perseda (1590)

*Por razões de conveniência, às vezes chamado de Q1.

Titus Andronicus 1589 1592 (1588-1594) SR(6.Feb.1594) 1594(Q1) 1600(Q2) 1611(Q3) 1623(F1)
  • a chapbook of “Titus Andronicus” sold by chapmen.
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Metamorphoses (Arthur Golding’s English translation in 1567)
  • Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (4. BC-AD65). Thyestes (English translation in 1560)
1 Henrique VI 1589-92 1623(F1)
  • Hall, Edward (1498-1547). The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (3rd. ed., 1550)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Fabyan, Robert (?-1513). New Chronicles of England and France) (1516)
Ricardo III 1592 (1591-93) SR(20.Oct.1597) 1597(Q1) 1598(Q2) 1602(Q3) 1605(Q4) 1612(Q5) 1622(Q6) 1623(F1) 1629 (Q7) 1634 (Q8)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Hall, Edward (1498-1547). The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (1587 edition)
  • More, Thomas. History of King Richard the Thirde. (1543)
  • William Baldwin ed. The Mirror for Magistrates (1559 ed.)
Vênus e Adônis 1593 (1592-1594) SR(18.Apr.1593) 1593(Q1) 1594(Q2) 1595? (O1) 1596(O2) 1599(O3) 1599(O4) 1602?(O5) 1602(O6-O8) 1617(O9)
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Metamorphoses (Arthur Golding’s English translation in 1567) Book 10.
O Estupro de Lucrécia 1594 SR(9.May.1594) 1594 (Q) 1598 (O1) 1600(O2) 1600(O3) 1607(O4) 1616(O5)
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Fasti Book 2. (Latian version)
  • Titus Livius (59BC-AD17). Ab urbe condita libri Book 1. (Latin)
  • Painter, William (1540-94). The Palace of Pleasure (1566-7)
  • Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340-1400). The Legend of Good Women (c. 1386)
A Comédia dos Erros 1591 1594 (1590-94) 1623(F1)
  • Plautus (c.254-184 BC). Menaechmi (perfromed 1592 with English translation by William Warner, printed 1595)
  • Plautus (c.254-184 BC). Amphitryon (Latin)
  • George Gascoigne (1542-77). Supposes (performed 1566, published 1573, 1587. Translation of Italian drama , I suppositi (1509)
  • the influence of Commedia dell’arte
Trabalhos de Amor Perdidos 1590 1594-95 SR(22.Jan.1607) 1598 (Q1) 1623(F1) Nenhuma fonte escrita foi encontrada.

  • the influence of Commedia dell’arte
Sonho de uma Noite de Verão 1595 SR(8.Oct.1600) 1600(Q1) 1619 (Q2) 1623(F1) Nenhuma fonte escrita foi encontrada, parece que o roteiro é original de Shakespeare. Entretanto há algumas influências:

    Theseus and Hippolyta

  • Plutarch (c.46-120). Lives (Thomas North’s translation in 1579)
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1340-1400). The Canterbury Tales “The Knight’s Tale” (1400)The story of “Pyramus and Thisbe” and the name of Titania.
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Metamorphoses (Arthur Golding’s English translation in 1567)Oberon
  • Huon of Bordeau, a 13th-century French adventure tale translated by Lord Berners (1534)
Os Sonetos 1593-1603 (1593-1609) SR(20.May.1609) 1609(Q) Nenhuma fonte escrita foi encontrada, porém há algumas influências:

  • Daniel, Samuel (c.1562-1619). Delia (1592) distructive “Time”
  • Sidney, Philip (1554-86). Astrophel and Stella (1591)
  • indirectly but the inference of Francesco Petrarca (1304-74)
Romeu e Julieta 1595 (1594-96) SR(22.Jan.1607) 1623(F1)
  • Brooke, Arthur (?-1563). The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (English translation in 1562)
Ricardo II 1595 SR(29.Aug.1597) 1597 (Q1) 1598 (Q2) 1598 (Q3) 1608 (Q4) 1615 (Q5) 1623(F1)
  • Hall, Edward (1498-1547). The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (3rd. ed., 1550)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Anonymous. Thomas of Woodstock (c. 1592)
  • Froissart, Jean(c.1337-1410). Chroniques (1495?)(John Bourchier’s English translation in 1523-5)
  • William Baldwin ed. The Mirror for Magistrates (1559 ed.)
  • Daniel, Samuel (c.1562-1619). The Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595-1609)
Rei João 1590-1 1596-7 1623(F1)
  • Anonymous. The Troublesome Raigne of John King of England2 Vol. (1591)(?)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Foxe, John (1516-87). The Book of Martyrs (4th ed., 1583)
O Mercador de Veneza 1596-7 SR(22.Jul.1598) 1600(Q1) 1619(Q2) 1623(F1)
  • Fiorentino, Ser Giovanni Il Pecorone (The Simpleton) (1558)
  • Gesta Romanorum (1340, translation by Richard Robinson, 1595 ed)
  • a Lost English play The Jew
  • Marlowe, Christopher (1564-93). The Jew of Malta (c. 1589)
  • Munday, Anthony, Zelauto (1580)
1 Henrique IV 1596-97 SR(25.Feb.1598) ?(Q0) 1598(Q1) 1599(Q2) 1604(Q3) 1608(Q4) 1613(Q5) 1622(Q6) 1623(F1)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Daniel, Samuel (c.1562-1619). The Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595-1609)
  • Anonymous. The Famous Victories of Henry the Fifth (c. 1586)
  • William Baldwin ed. The Mirror for Magistrates (1559 ed.)
  • Stow, John (1525-c.1605) The Chronicles of England (1580)
As Alegres Comadres de Windsor 1597 (1597-8) SR(18.Jan.1602) 1623(F1) Nenhuma fonte escrita foi encontrada, porém há algumas influências:

  • Fiorentino, Ser Giovanni Il Pecorone (The Simpleton) (1558)
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Metamorphoses (Arthur Golding’s English translation in 1567)
  • Lyly, John (c.1554-1606). Endimion (1588)
2 Henrique IV 1597-8 SR(23.Aug.1600) 1600(Q) 1623(F1)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Anonymous. The Famous Victories of Henry the Fifth (c. 1586)
  • Hall, Edward (1498-1547). The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (3rd. ed., 1550)
  • Daniel, Samuel (c.1562-1619). The Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595-1609)
  • William Baldwin ed. The Mirror for Magistrates (1559 ed.)
Muito Barulho por Nada 1598 (1598-99) SR(4.Aug.1600) 1623(F1)
  • Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533). Orlando Furioso (1516)(The English translation by John Harington in 1591)
  • Bandello, Matteo (1485-1561) Novelle (1554-73) 22th story.
  • Edmund Spenser (c.1552-99). The Faerie Queene (1590)
  • Francois de Belleforest (1530-83). Histories Tragiques (1568) Book 3
  • Whetstone, George The Roke of Regard (1576) -Clauido’s rejuction of Hero at her own wedding
  • Castiglione, Baldassare (1478-1529)The Book of the Courtier (1528)
Henrique V 1599 (1598-99) SR(4.Aug.1600) 1600(Q1) 1602(Q2) 1619(Q3) 1623(F1)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Anonymous. The Famous Victories of Henry the Fifth (c. 1586)
  • Robert Fabyan (?-1513). New Chronicles of England and France) (1516)
  • Samuel Daniel (c.1562-1619). The Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595-1609)
O Peregrino Apaixonado 1599 1599(O1) ?(O2) 1612(O3)
Júlio César 1599 1623(F1)
  • Plutarch (c.46-120). Lives (Thomas North’s English translation in 1579)
  • Appian [Appianos] (2nd century). Civil Wars (English translation in 1578)
  • Anonymous.The Tragedy of Caesar and Pompey, or Caesar’s Revenge (c. 1595)
Como gostais 1599 (1599-00) SR(4.Aug.1600) 1623(F1)
  • Thomas Lodge (c.1557-1625). Rosalynde (1590)
Hamlet 1600-01 SR(26.Jul.1602) 1603 (Q1) 1604 (Q2) 1611(Q3) 1623(F1)
  • Thomas Kyd (1558-94). Ur-Hamlet (c. 1589)
  • Francois de Belleforest (1530-83). Histories Tragiques Book 5 (1570)
Noite de Reis 1601 (1601-02) 1623(F1)
  • Barnabe Riche (c.1540-1617). Farewell to Militarie Profession (1581) the story of “Apolonius and Silla”
  • Bandello, Matteo (1485-1561) Novelle (1554-73)
A Fênix e a Pomba 1601 1601(Q1) 1611(Q2)    Nenhuma fonte escrita foi encontrada, porém há algumas influências:

  • Chester, Robert Love’s Martyr where The Phoenix and the Turtle appears
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Amores Book 2 6th poem.
  • Matthew Roydon’s elegy in The Phoenix Nest
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1340-1400). The Pralement of Foules
Tróilo e Cressida 1602 (1601-03) SR(7.Feb.1603) 1609(Q) 1623(F1)
  • Homer (c. 900.BC). Iliad (English translation in 1598 by George Chapman)
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1340-1400). Troilus and Criseyde (c. 1385)
  • Caxton, William (c.1421-91). Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye) (1475, 5th ed. 1596)
  • Lydgate, John (c.1370-1449). The Troy Book (1412-20, 1555 ed)
Queixa de um Amante 1603-04 (1600-04) SR(20.May.1609) 1609(Q)
  • Samuel Daniel (c.1562-1619). The Complaint of Rosamond (1592)
  • Edmund Spenser (c.1552-99). Complaints (1591)
Medida por Medida 1604 (1603-04) 1623(F1)
  • Geroge Whetstone (c.1544-87). Promos and Cassandra (1578)
  • Cinthio, Giovanni Battista Giraldi.1504-73). Hecatommithi (1565. No English translations have found, therefore, Shakespeare probably read it either in Italian or French.)
  • Cinthio, Giovanni Battista Giraldi.1504-73) Epitia (1583. No English translations have found, therefore, Shakespeare probably read it either in Italian or French..)
  • Barnabe Riche (c.1540-1617). The Adventures of Brusanus, prince of Hungaria (1592)–Lucio’s interactions with the disguised Duke.
Otelo 1603-04 SR(6.Oct.1621) 1622(Q1) 1623(F1) 1630(Q2)
  • Cinthio (Giovanni Battista Giraldi.1504-73). Hecatommithi (1565. No English translations have found, therefore, Shakespeare probably read it either in Italian or French.) Book 2, 7th story of “Disdemona and the Moor”
  • Pliny, the Elder (23-79). Naturalia Historia (Philemon Holland’s translation in 1601)
  • Africanus, Leo. A Geographical History of Africa (English translation by John Pory, 1600)
Bem Está o que Bem Acaba 1605 (1602-05) 1623(F1)
  • Painter, William (1540-94). The Palace of Pleasure (1566-7)
Timão de Atenas 1605 (1604-08) 1623(F1)
  • Plutarch (c.46-120). Lives (Thomas North’s English translation in 1579)
  • Lucian (c. 120-180). Timon, the Misanthrope (No English translation which Shakespeare could use is found.)
  • John Lyly (c.1554-1606). Campaspe (c. 1584)
  • Anonymous. Timon. (c. 1602)
Rei Lear 1605 (1605-06) SR(26.Nov.1607) 1608(Q1) 1619(Q2) 1623(F1)
  • Anonymous. The True Chronicle History of King Leir (c. 1590)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Sidney, Philip (1554-86). The Arcadia (1590)
  • Spenser, Edmund (c.1552-99). The Faerie Queene (1590)
Macbeth 1606 1623(F1)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Buchanan, George (1506-82) (1582)
  • Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (4BC. – AD 65). Hercules Furens and Agamemnon (English translation in 1565)
Antônio e Cleópatra 1607 (1606-07) SR(20 May.1608) 1623(F1)
  • Plutarch (c.46-120). Lives (Thomas North’s translation in 1579)
  • Appian [Appianos] (2nd century). Civil Wars (English translation in 1578)
  • Daniel, Samuel (c.1562-1619). The Tragedy of Cleopatra (c. 1594)
Péricles 1607-08 SR(20.May.1608) 1609(Q1) 1609(Q2) 1611(Q3) 1619(Q4) 1630(Q5) 1635(Q6) 1664(F3)
  • Gower, John (c. 1330-1408) Confessio Amantis. (1554 ed) which was from the medieval collection of Latin tales, Gesta Romanorum (c. 1340)
  • Twine, Lurence (active 1564-1576) The patterne of Painefull Adventures (1594, 1607)
  • Sidney, Philip (1554-86). The Arcadia (1590)
Coriolano 1608 (1607-08) 1623(F1)
  • Plutarch (c.46-120). Lives (Thomas North’s English translation in 1579)
  • Livius, Titus or Livy (59BC-AD17). Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Philemon Holland’s English translation as The Romane Historie in 1600.)
  • Camden, William (1551-1623). Remaines of Greater Worke Concerning Britain (1605)
  • Averell, William A Marvaillous Combat of Contrarieties
Conto do Inverno 1609 (1609-11) 1623(F1)
  • Robert Greene (c.1558-92). Pandosto (1588)
  • Ovid (43 BC- AD18). Metamorphoses (Arthur Golding’s English translation in 1567)
Cimbelino 1609 (1609-10) 1623(F1)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • William Baldwin ed). The Mirror for Magistrates (1559 ed.)
  • Anonymous. Frederyke of Jennen 3rd ed., (1560)
  • Anonymous. The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune (performed 158, printed 1589)
  • Boccaccio, Giovanni (1313-75). Decameron 2nd Day, 9th story
A Tempestade 1611 (1610-11) 1623(F1) Nenhuma fonte escrita foi encontrada, porém Shakespeare pode ter sido influenciado por um evento. Em junho 1609, um navio chamado Sea Adventure afundou nas Bermudas. Um sobrevivente, William Strachey, descreveu sua experiência numa carta que circulou como manuscrito.

  • Strachey, William (c.1567-c.1634) (dated 15.Jul.1610, printed 1625)
  • Jourdain, Sylvester (?-1650). A Discovery of the Bermudas (1610)
  • Jourdain, Sylvester (?-1650) The True Declaration of the Estate of Colonie in virginia (1610)
Henrique VIII 1613 (1612-13) 1623(F1)
  • Holinshed, Raphael (c. 1528-c. 1580). The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. (2nd ed., 1587)
  • Foxe, John (1516-87). The Book of Martyrs (4th ed., 1583)
Dois Nobres Parentes  1st Quarto Edition (1634) 1613 (1612-14) SR(8.Apr.163) 1634(Q)
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey (c. 1340-1400). The Canterbury Tales (c.1482)
  • Plutarch (c. 46-120). Lives (Thomas North’s English translation in 1579)–Theseus’ depiction esp.1.1.
  • Beaumont, Francis (c. 1584-1616) (the Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray’s Inn) (1613)

Como você pode ver , Trabalhos de Amor Perdidos, Sonho de uma Noite de Verão, As Alegres Comadres de Windsor e a Tempestade são roteiros originais de Shakespeare.

Referências: A ordem seguida é a de Oxford, The Complete Works of Shakespeare.

Bullough, Geoffery. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare. 8 Vols. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967-75.

Muir, Kenneth. The Sources of Shakespeare Plays. London: Methuen, 1977.