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Richard II

ACT I SCENE IIIThe lists at Coventry.
Enter the Lord Marshal and the DUKE OF AUMERLE.
Lord MarshalMy Lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford arm’d?
DUKE OF AUMERLEYea, at all points; and longs to enter in.
Lord MarshalThe Duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold,
Stays but the summons of the appellant’s trumpet. 5
DUKE OF AUMERLEWhy, then, the champions are prepared, and stay
For nothing but his majesty’s approach.
The trumpets sound, and KING RICHARD enters with his nobles,
When they are set, enter THOMAS MOWBRAY inarms, defendant, with a Herald
KING RICHARD IIMarshal, demand of yonder champion
The cause of his arrival here in arms:
Ask him his name and orderly proceed 10
To swear him in the justice of his cause.
Lord MarshalIn God’s name and the king’s, say who thou art
And why thou comest thus knightly clad in arms,
Against what man thou comest, and what thy quarrel:
Speak truly, on thy knighthood and thy oath; 15
As so defend thee heaven and thy valour!
THOMAS MOWBRAYMy name is Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk;
Who hither come engaged by my oath–
Which God defend a knight should violate!–
Both to defend my loyalty and truth 20
To God, my king and my succeeding issue,
Against the Duke of Hereford that appeals me
And, by the grace of God and this mine arm,
To prove him, in defending of myself,
A traitor to my God, my king, and me: 25
And as I truly fight, defend me heaven!
The trumpets sound. Enter HENRY BOLINGBROKE, appellant, in armour, with a Herald.
KING RICHARD IIMarshal, ask yonder knight in arms,
Both who he is and why he cometh hither
Thus plated in habiliments of war,
And formally, according to our law, 30
Depose him in the justice of his cause.
Lord MarshalWhat is thy name? and wherefore comest thou hither,
Before King Richard in his royal lists?
Against whom comest thou? and what’s thy quarrel?
Speak like a true knight, so defend thee heaven! 35
HENRY BOLINGBROKEHarry of Hereford, Lancaster and Derby
Am I; who ready here do stand in arms,
To prove, by God’s grace and my body’s valour,
In lists, on Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
That he is a traitor, foul and dangerous, 40
To God of heaven, King Richard and to me;
And as I truly fight, defend me heaven!
Lord MarshalOn pain of death, no person be so bold
Or daring-hardy as to touch the lists,
Except the marshal and such officers 45
Appointed to direct these fair designs.
HENRY BOLINGBROKELord marshal, let me kiss my sovereign’s hand,
And bow my knee before his majesty:
For Mowbray and myself are like two men
That vow a long and weary pilgrimage; 50
Then let us take a ceremonious leave
And loving farewell of our several friends.
Lord MarshalThe appellant in all duty greets your highness,
And craves to kiss your hand and take his leave.
KING RICHARD IIWe will descend and fold him in our arms. 55
Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,
So be thy fortune in this royal fight!
Farewell, my blood; which if to-day thou shed,
Lament we may, but not revenge thee dead.
HENRY BOLINGBROKEO let no noble eye profane a tear 60
For me, if I be gored with Mowbray’s spear:
As confident as is the falcon’s flight
Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.
My loving lord, I take my leave of you;
Of you, my noble cousin, Lord Aumerle; 65
Not sick, although I have to do with death,
But lusty, young, and cheerly drawing breath.
Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet
The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet:
O thou, the earthly author of my blood, 70
Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,
Doth with a twofold vigour lift me up
To reach at victory above my head,
Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers;
And with thy blessings steel my lance’s point, 75
That it may enter Mowbray’s waxen coat,
And furbish new the name of John a Gaunt,
Even in the lusty havior of his son.
JOHN OF GAUNTGod in thy good cause make thee prosperous!
Be swift like lightning in the execution; 80
And let thy blows, doubly redoubled,
Fall like amazing thunder on the casque
Of thy adverse pernicious enemy:
Rouse up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live.
HENRY BOLINGBROKEMine innocency and Saint George to thrive! 85
THOMAS MOWBRAYHowever God or fortune cast my lot,
There lives or dies, true to King Richard’s throne,
A loyal, just and upright gentleman:
Never did captive with a freer heart
Cast off his chains of bondage and embrace 90
His golden uncontroll’d enfranchisement,
More than my dancing soul doth celebrate
This feast of battle with mine adversary.
Most mighty liege, and my companion peers,
Take from my mouth the wish of happy years: 95
As gentle and as jocund as to jest
Go I to fight: truth hath a quiet breast.
KING RICHARD IIFarewell, my lord: securely I espy
Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.
Order the trial, marshal, and begin. 100
Lord MarshalHarry of Hereford, Lancaster and Derby,
Receive thy lance; and God defend the right!
HENRY BOLINGBROKEStrong as a tower in hope, I cry amen.
Lord MarshalGo bear this lance to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk.
First HeraldHarry of Hereford, Lancaster and Derby, 105
Stands here for God, his sovereign and himself,
On pain to be found false and recreant,
To prove the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray,
A traitor to his God, his king and him;
And dares him to set forward to the fight. 110
Second HeraldHere standeth Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
On pain to be found false and recreant,
Both to defend himself and to approve
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
To God, his sovereign and to him disloyal; 115
Courageously and with a free desire
Attending but the signal to begin.
Lord MarshalSound, trumpets; and set forward, combatants.
A charge sounded.
Stay, the king hath thrown his warder down.
KING RICHARD IILet them lay by their helmets and their spears, 120
And both return back to their chairs again:
Withdraw with us: and let the trumpets sound
While we return these dukes what we decree.
A long flourish
Draw near,
And list what with our council we have done. 125
For that our kingdom’s earth should not be soil’d
With that dear blood which it hath fostered;
And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect
Of civil wounds plough’d up with neighbours’ sword;
And for we think the eagle-winged pride 130
Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts,
With rival-hating envy, set on you
To wake our peace, which in our country’s cradle
Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep;
Which so roused up with boisterous untuned drums, 135
With harsh resounding trumpets’ dreadful bray,
And grating shock of wrathful iron arms,
Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace
And make us wade even in our kindred’s blood,
Therefore, we banish you our territories: 140
You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of life,
Till twice five summers have enrich’d our fields
Shall not regreet our fair dominions,
But tread the stranger paths of banishment.
HENRY BOLINGBROKEYour will be done: this must my comfort be, 145
Sun that warms you here shall shine on me;
And those his golden beams to you here lent
Shall point on me and gild my banishment.
KING RICHARD IINorfolk, for thee remains a heavier doom,
Which I with some unwillingness pronounce: 150
The sly slow hours shall not determinate
The dateless limit of thy dear exile;
The hopeless word of ‘never to return’
Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life.
THOMAS MOWBRAYA heavy sentence, my most sovereign liege, 155
And all unlook’d for from your highness’ mouth:
A dearer merit, not so deep a maim
As to be cast forth in the common air,
Have I deserved at your highness’ hands.
The language I have learn’d these forty years, 160
My native English, now I must forego:
And now my tongue’s use is to me no more
Than an unstringed viol or a harp,
Or like a cunning instrument cased up,
Or, being open, put into his hands 165
That knows no touch to tune the harmony:
Within my mouth you have engaol’d my tongue,
Doubly portcullis’d with my teeth and lips;
And dull unfeeling barren ignorance
Is made my gaoler to attend on me. 170
I am too old to fawn upon a nurse,
Too far in years to be a pupil now:
What is thy sentence then but speechless death,
Which robs my tongue from breathing native breath?
KING RICHARD IIIt boots thee not to be compassionate: 175
After our sentence plaining comes too late.
THOMAS MOWBRAYThen thus I turn me from my country’s light,
To dwell in solemn shades of endless night.
KING RICHARD IIReturn again, and take an oath with thee.
Lay on our royal sword your banish’d hands; 180
Swear by the duty that you owe to God–
Our part therein we banish with yourselves–
To keep the oath that we administer:
You never shall, so help you truth and God!
Embrace each other’s love in banishment; 185
Nor never look upon each other’s face;
Nor never write, regreet, nor reconcile
This louring tempest of your home-bred hate;
Nor never by advised purpose meet
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill 190
‘Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land.
THOMAS MOWBRAYAnd I, to keep all this.
HENRY BOLINGBROKENorfolk, so far as to mine enemy:–
By this time, had the king permitted us, 195
One of our souls had wander’d in the air.
Banish’d this frail sepulchre of our flesh,
As now our flesh is banish’d from this land:
Confess thy treasons ere thou fly the realm;
Since thou hast far to go, bear not along 200
The clogging burthen of a guilty soul.
THOMAS MOWBRAYNo, Bolingbroke: if ever I were traitor,
My name be blotted from the book of life,
And I from heaven banish’d as from hence!
But what thou art, God, thou, and I do know; 205
And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue.
Farewell, my liege. Now no way can I stray;
Save back to England, all the world’s my way.
KING RICHARD IIUncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes
I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect 210
Hath from the number of his banish’d years
Pluck’d four away.
Six frozen winter spent,
Return with welcome home from banishment.
HENRY BOLINGBROKEHow long a time lies in one little word! 215
Four lagging winters and four wanton springs
End in a word: such is the breath of kings.
JOHN OF GAUNTI thank my liege, that in regard of me
He shortens four years of my son’s exile:
But little vantage shall I reap thereby; 220
For, ere the six years that he hath to spend
Can change their moons and bring their times about
My oil-dried lamp and time-bewasted light
Shall be extinct with age and endless night;
My inch of taper will be burnt and done, 225
And blindfold death not let me see my son.
KING RICHARD IIWhy uncle, thou hast many years to live.
JOHN OF GAUNTBut not a minute, king, that thou canst give:
Shorten my days thou canst with sullen sorrow,
And pluck nights from me, but not lend a morrow; 230
Thou canst help time to furrow me with age,
But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage;
Thy word is current with him for my death,
But dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath.
KING RICHARD IIThy son is banish’d upon good advice, 235
Whereto thy tongue a party-verdict gave:
Why at our justice seem’st thou then to lour?
JOHN OF GAUNTThings sweet to taste prove in digestion sour.
You urged me as a judge; but I had rather
You would have bid me argue like a father. 240
O, had it been a stranger, not my child,
To smooth his fault I should have been more mild:
A partial slander sought I to avoid,
And in the sentence my own life destroy’d.
Alas, I look’d when some of you should say, 245
I was too strict to make mine own away;
But you gave leave to my unwilling tongue
Against my will to do myself this wrong.
KING RICHARD IICousin, farewell; and, uncle, bid him so:
Six years we banish him, and he shall go. 250
Flourish. Exeunt KING RICHARD II and train.
DUKE OF AUMERLECousin, farewell: what presence must not know,
From where you do remain let paper show.
Lord MarshalMy lord, no leave take I; for I will ride,
As far as land will let me, by your side.
JOHN OF GAUNTO, to what purpose dost thou hoard thy words, 255
That thou return’st no greeting to thy friends?
HENRY BOLINGBROKEI have too few to take my leave of you,
When the tongue’s office should be prodigal
To breathe the abundant dolour of the heart.
JOHN OF GAUNTThy grief is but thy absence for a time. 260
HENRY BOLINGBROKEJoy absent, grief is present for that time.
JOHN OF GAUNTWhat is six winters? they are quickly gone.
HENRY BOLINGBROKETo men in joy; but grief makes one hour ten.
JOHN OF GAUNTCall it a travel that thou takest for pleasure.
HENRY BOLINGBROKEMy heart will sigh when I miscall it so, 265
Which finds it an inforced pilgrimage.
JOHN OF GAUNTThe sullen passage of thy weary steps
Esteem as foil wherein thou art to set
The precious jewel of thy home return.
HENRY BOLINGBROKENay, rather, every tedious stride I make 270
Will but remember me what a deal of world
I wander from the jewels that I love.
Must I not serve a long apprenticehood
To foreign passages, and in the end,
Having my freedom, boast of nothing else 275
But that I was a journeyman to grief?
JOHN OF GAUNTAll places that the eye of heaven visits
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens.
Teach thy necessity to reason thus;
There is no virtue like necessity. 280
Think not the king did banish thee,
But thou the king. Woe doth the heavier sit,
Where it perceives it is but faintly borne.
Go, say I sent thee forth to purchase honour
And not the king exiled thee; or suppose 285
Devouring pestilence hangs in our air
And thou art flying to a fresher clime:
Look, what thy soul holds dear, imagine it
To lie that way thou go’st, not whence thou comest:
Suppose the singing birds musicians, 290
The grass whereon thou tread’st the presence strew’d,
The flowers fair ladies, and thy steps no more
Than a delightful measure or a dance;
For gnarling sorrow hath less power to bite
The man that mocks at it and sets it light. 295
HENRY BOLINGBROKEO, who can hold a fire in his hand
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus?
Or cloy the hungry edge of appetite
By bare imagination of a feast?
Or wallow naked in December snow 300
By thinking on fantastic summer’s heat?
O, no! the apprehension of the good
Gives but the greater feeling to the worse:
Fell sorrow’s tooth doth never rankle more
Than when he bites, but lanceth not the sore. 305
JOHN OF GAUNTCome, come, my son, I’ll bring thee on thy way:
Had I thy youth and cause, I would not stay.
HENRY BOLINGBROKEThen, England’s ground, farewell; sweet soil, adieu;
My mother, and my nurse, that bears me yet!
Where’er I wander, boast of this I can, 310
Though banish’d, yet a trueborn Englishman.

Richard II, Act 1, Scene 4