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ACT III SCENE IIIThe garden of the castle.
DESDEMONABe thou assured, good Cassio, I will do
All my abilities in thy behalf.
EMILIAGood madam, do: I warrant it grieves my husband,
As if the case were his.
DESDEMONAO, that’s an honest fellow. Do not doubt, Cassio,
But I will have my lord and you again
As friendly as you were.
CASSIOBounteous madam,
Whatever shall become of Michael Cassio,
He’s never any thing but your true servant.
DESDEMONAI know’t; I thank you. You do love my lord: 10
You have known him long; and be you well assured
He shall in strangeness stand no further off
Than in a polite distance.
CASSIOAy, but, lady,
That policy may either last so long,
Or feed upon such nice and waterish diet,
Or breed itself so out of circumstance,
That, I being absent and my place supplied,
My general will forget my love and service.
DESDEMONADo not doubt that; before Emilia here
I give thee warrant of thy place: assure thee, 20
If I do vow a friendship, I’ll perform it
To the last article: my lord shall never rest;
I’ll watch him tame and talk him out of patience;
His bed shall seem a school, his board a shrift;
I’ll intermingle every thing he does
With Cassio’s suit: therefore be merry, Cassio;
For thy solicitor shall rather die
Than give thy cause away.
EMILIAMadam, here comes my lord.
CASSIOMadam, I’ll take my leave. 30
DESDEMONAWhy, stay, and hear me speak.
CASSIOMadam, not now: I am very ill at ease,
Unfit for mine own purposes.
DESDEMONAWell, do your discretion.
IAGOHa! I like not that.
OTHELLOWhat dost thou say?
IAGONothing, my lord: or if–I know not what.
OTHELLOWas not that Cassio parted from my wife?
IAGOCassio, my lord! No, sure, I cannot think it,
That he would steal away so guilty-like,
Seeing you coming.
OTHELLOI do believe ’twas he.
DESDEMONAHow now, my lord! 40
I have been talking with a suitor here,
A man that languishes in your displeasure.
OTHELLOWho is’t you mean?
DESDEMONAWhy, your lieutenant, Cassio. Good my lord,
If I have any grace or power to move you,
His present reconciliation take;
For if he be not one that truly loves you,
That errs in ignorance and not in cunning,
I have no judgment in an honest face: 50
I prithee, call him back.
OTHELLOWent he hence now?
DESDEMONAAy, sooth; so humbled
That he hath left part of his grief with me,
To suffer with him. Good love, call him back.
OTHELLONot now, sweet Desdemona; some other time.
DESDEMONABut shall’t be shortly?
OTHELLOThe sooner, sweet, for you.
DESDEMONAShall’t be to-night at supper?
OTHELLONo, not to-night.
DESDEMONATo-morrow dinner, then?
OTHELLOI shall not dine at home;
I meet the captains at the citadel.
DESDEMONAWhy, then, to-morrow night; or Tuesday morn;
On Tuesday noon, or night; on Wednesday morn: 60
I prithee, name the time, but let it not
Exceed three days: in faith, he’s penitent;
And yet his trespass, in our common reason–
Save that, they say, the wars must make examples
Out of their best–is not almost a fault
To incur a private cheque. When shall he come?
Tell me, Othello: I wonder in my soul,
What you would ask me, that I should deny,
Or stand so mammering on. What! Michael Cassio, 70
That came a-wooing with you, and so many a time,
When I have spoke of you dispraisingly,
Hath ta’en your part; to have so much to do
To bring him in! Trust me, I could do much,–
OTHELLOPrithee, no more: let him come when he will;
I will deny thee nothing.
DESDEMONAWhy, this is not a boon;
‘Tis as I should entreat you wear your gloves,
Or feed on nourishing dishes, or keep you warm,
Or sue to you to do a peculiar profit
To your own person: nay, when I have a suit 80
Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed,
It shall be full of poise and difficult weight
And fearful to be granted.
OTHELLOI will deny thee nothing:
Whereon, I do beseech thee, grant me this,
To leave me but a little to myself.
DESDEMONAShall I deny you? no: farewell, my lord.
OTHELLOFarewell, my Desdemona: I’ll come to thee straight.
DESDEMONAEmilia, come. Be as your fancies teach you;
Whate’er you be, I am obedient.
OTHELLOExcellent wretch! Perdition catch my soul, 90
But I do love thee! and when I love thee not,
Chaos is come again.
IAGOMy noble lord–
OTHELLOWhat dost thou say, Iago?
IAGODid Michael Cassio, when you woo’d my lady,
Know of your love?
OTHELLOHe did, from first to last: why dost thou ask?
IAGOBut for a satisfaction of my thought;
No further harm.
OTHELLOWhy of thy thought, Iago?
IAGOI did not think he had been acquainted with her.
OTHELLOO, yes; and went between us very oft. 110
OTHELLOIndeed! ay, indeed: discern’st thou aught in that?
Is he not honest?
IAGOHonest, my lord!
OTHELLOHonest! ay, honest.
IAGOMy lord, for aught I know.
OTHELLOWhat dost thou think?
IAGOThink, my lord!
OTHELLOThink, my lord!
By heaven, he echoes me,
As if there were some monster in his thought
Too hideous to be shown. Thou dost mean something:
I heard thee say even now, thou likedst not that,
When Cassio left my wife: what didst not like? 110
And when I told thee he was of my counsel
In my whole course of wooing, thou criedst ‘Indeed!’
And didst contract and purse thy brow together,
As if thou then hadst shut up in thy brain
Some horrible conceit: if thou dost love me,
Show me thy thought.
IAGOMy lord, you know I love you.
OTHELLOI think thou dost;
And, for I know thou’rt full of love and honesty,
And weigh’st thy words before thou givest them breath,
Therefore these stops of thine fright me the more: 120
For such things in a false disloyal knave
Are tricks of custom, but in a man that’s just
They are close delations, working from the heart
That passion cannot rule.
IAGOFor Michael Cassio,
I dare be sworn I think that he is honest.
OTHELLOI think so too.
IAGOMen should be what they seem;
Or those that be not, would they might seem none!
OTHELLOCertain, men should be what they seem.
IAGOWhy, then, I think Cassio’s an honest man.
OTHELLONay, yet there’s more in this: 130
I prithee, speak to me as to thy thinkings,
As thou dost ruminate, and give thy worst of thoughts
The worst of words.
IAGOGood my lord, pardon me:
Though I am bound to every act of duty,
I am not bound to that all slaves are free to.
Utter my thoughts? Why, say they are vile and false;
As where’s that palace whereinto foul things
Sometimes intrude not? who has a breast so pure,
But some uncleanly apprehensions
Keep leets and law-days and in session sit 140
With meditations lawful?
OTHELLOThou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago,
If thou but think’st him wrong’d and makest his ear
A stranger to thy thoughts.
IAGOI do beseech you–
Though I perchance am vicious in my guess,
As, I confess, it is my nature’s plague
To spy into abuses, and oft my jealousy
Shapes faults that are not–that your wisdom yet,
From one that so imperfectly conceits,
Would take no notice, nor build yourself a trouble 150
Out of his scattering and unsure observance.
It were not for your quiet nor your good,
Nor for my manhood, honesty, or wisdom,
To let you know my thoughts.
OTHELLOWhat dost thou mean?
IAGOGood name in man and woman, dear my lord,
Is the immediate jewel of their souls:
Who steals my purse steals trash; ’tis something, nothing;
‘Twas mine, ’tis his, and has been slave to thousands:
But he that filches from me my good name
Robs me of that which not enriches him 160
And makes me poor indeed.
OTHELLOBy heaven, I’ll know thy thoughts.
IAGOYou cannot, if my heart were in your hand;
Nor shall not, whilst ’tis in my custody.
IAGOO, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on; that cuckold lives in bliss
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger;
But, O, what damned minutes tells he o’er
Who dotes, yet doubts, suspects, yet strongly loves! 170
OTHELLOO misery!
IAGOPoor and content is rich and rich enough,
But riches fineless is as poor as winter
To him that ever fears he shall be poor.
Good heaven, the souls of all my tribe defend
From jealousy!
OTHELLOWhy, why is this?
Think’st thou I’ld make a lie of jealousy,
To follow still the changes of the moon
With fresh suspicions? No; to be once in doubt
Is once to be resolved: exchange me for a goat, 180
When I shall turn the business of my soul
To such exsufflicate and blown surmises,
Matching thy inference. ‘Tis not to make me jealous
To say my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company,
Is free of speech, sings, plays and dances well;
Where virtue is, these are more virtuous:
Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw
The smallest fear or doubt of her revolt;
For she had eyes, and chose me. No, Iago;
I’ll see before I doubt; when I doubt, prove;
And on the proof, there is no more but this,– 190
Away at once with love or jealousy!
IAGOI am glad of it; for now I shall have reason
To show the love and duty that I bear you
With franker spirit: therefore, as I am bound,
Receive it from me. I speak not yet of proof.
Look to your wife; observe her well with Cassio;
Wear your eye thus, not jealous nor secure:
I would not have your free and noble nature,
Out of self-bounty, be abused; look to’t: 200
I know our country disposition well;
In Venice they do let heaven see the pranks
They dare not show their husbands; their best conscience
Is not to leave’t undone, but keep’t unknown.
OTHELLODost thou say so?
IAGOShe did deceive her father, marrying you;
And when she seem’d to shake and fear your looks,
She loved them most.
OTHELLOAnd so she did.
IAGOWhy, go to then;
She that, so young, could give out such a seeming,
To seal her father’s eyes up close as oak- 210
He thought ’twas witchcraft–but I am much to blame;
I humbly do beseech you of your pardon
For too much loving you.
OTHELLOI am bound to thee for ever.
IAGOI see this hath a little dash’d your spirits.
OTHELLONot a jot, not a jot.
IAGOI’ faith, I fear it has.
I hope you will consider what is spoke
Comes from my love. But I do see you’re moved:
I am to pray you not to strain my speech
To grosser issues nor to larger reach
Than to suspicion. 220
OTHELLOI will not.
IAGOShould you do so, my lord,
My speech should fall into such vile success
As my thoughts aim not at. Cassio’s my worthy friend–
My lord, I see you’re moved.
OTHELLONo, not much moved:
I do not think but Desdemona’s honest.
IAGOLong live she so! and long live you to think so!
OTHELLOAnd yet, how nature erring from itself,–
IAGOAy, there’s the point: as–to be bold with you–
Not to affect many proposed matches
Of her own clime, complexion, and degree, 230
Whereto we see in all things nature tends–
Foh! one may smell in such a will most rank,
Foul disproportion thoughts unnatural.
But pardon me; I do not in position
Distinctly speak of her; though I may fear
Her will, recoiling to her better judgment,
May fall to match you with her country forms
And happily repent.
OTHELLOFarewell, farewell:
If more thou dost perceive, let me know more;
Set on thy wife to observe: leave me, Iago: 240
OTHELLOWhy did I marry? This honest creature doubtless
Sees and knows more, much more, than he unfolds.
your honour
To scan this thing no further; leave it to time:
Though it be fit that Cassio have his place,
For sure, he fills it up with great ability,
Yet, if you please to hold him off awhile,
You shall by that perceive him and his means:
Note, if your lady strain his entertainment 250
With any strong or vehement importunity;
Much will be seen in that. In the mean time,
Let me be thought too busy in my fears–
As worthy cause I have to fear I am–
And hold her free, I do beseech your honour.
OTHELLOFear not my government.
IAGOI once more take my leave.
OTHELLOThis fellow’s of exceeding honesty,
And knows all qualities, with a learned spirit,
Of human dealings. If I do prove her haggard, 260
Though that her jesses were my dear heartstrings,
I’ld whistle her off and let her down the wind,
To pray at fortune. Haply, for I am black
And have not those soft parts of conversation
That chamberers have, or for I am declined
Into the vale of years,–yet that’s not much–
She’s gone. I am abused; and my relief
Must be to loathe her. O curse of marriage,
That we can call these delicate creatures ours,
And not their appetites! I had rather be a toad, 270
And live upon the vapour of a dungeon,
Than keep a corner in the thing I love
For others’ uses. Yet, ’tis the plague of great ones;
Prerogatived are they less than the base;
‘Tis destiny unshunnable, like death:
Even then this forked plague is fated to us
When we do quicken. Desdemona comes:
If she be false, O, then heaven mocks itself!
I’ll not believe’t.
DESDEMONAHow now, my dear Othello!
Your dinner, and the generous islanders 280
By you invited, do attend your presence.
OTHELLOI am to blame.
DESDEMONAWhy do you speak so faintly?
Are you not well?
OTHELLOI have a pain upon my forehead here.
DESDEMONA‘Faith, that’s with watching; ’twill away again:
Let me but bind it hard, within this hour
It will be well.
OTHELLOYour napkin is too little:
He puts the handkerchief from him; and it drops
Let it alone. Come, I’ll go in with you.
DESDEMONAI am very sorry that you are not well.
EMILIAI am glad I have found this napkin: 290
This was her first remembrance from the Moor:
My wayward husband hath a hundred times
Woo’d me to steal it; but she so loves the token,
For he conjured her she should ever keep it,
That she reserves it evermore about her
To kiss and talk to. I’ll have the work ta’en out,
And give’t Iago: what he will do with it
Heaven knows, not I;
I nothing but to please his fantasy.
Re-enter Iago.
IAGOHow now! what do you here alone? 300
EMILIADo not you chide; I have a thing for you.
IAGOA thing for me? it is a common thing–
IAGOTo have a foolish wife.
EMILIAO, is that all? What will you give me now
For the same handkerchief?
IAGOWhat handkerchief?
EMILIAWhat handkerchief?
Why, that the Moor first gave to Desdemona;
That which so often you did bid me steal.
IAGOHast stol’n it from her? 310
EMILIANo, ‘faith; she let it drop by negligence.
And, to the advantage, I, being here, took’t up.
Look, here it is.
IAGOA good wench; give it me.
EMILIAWhat will you do with ‘t, that you have been
so earnest
To have me filch it?
IAGOSnatching it
EMILIAIf it be not for some purpose of import,
Give’t me again: poor lady, she’ll run mad
When she shall lack it.
IAGOBe not acknown on ‘t; I have use for it.
Go, leave me. 320
I will in Cassio’s lodging lose this napkin,
And let him find it. Trifles light as air
Are to the jealous confirmations strong
As proofs of holy writ: this may do something.
The Moor already changes with my poison:
Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons.
Which at the first are scarce found to distaste,
But with a little act upon the blood.
Burn like the mines of Sulphur. I did say so:
Look, where he comes!
Re-enter OTHELLO.
Not poppy, nor mandragora, 330
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou owedst yesterday.
OTHELLOHa! ha! false to me?
IAGOWhy, how now, general! no more of that.
OTHELLOAvaunt! be gone! thou hast set me on the rack:
I swear ’tis better to be much abused
Than but to know’t a little.
IAGOHow now, my lord!
OTHELLOWhat sense had I of her stol’n hours of lust?
I saw’t not, thought it not, it harm’d not me:
I slept the next night well, was free and merry; 340
I found not Cassio’s kisses on her lips:
He that is robb’d, not wanting what is stol’n,
Let him not know’t, and he’s not robb’d at all.
IAGOI am sorry to hear this.
OTHELLOI had been happy, if the general camp,
Pioners and all, had tasted her sweet body,
So I had nothing known. O, now, for ever
Farewell the tranquil mind! farewell content!
Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars,
That make ambition virtue! O, farewell! 350
Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump,
The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner, and all quality,
Pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war!
And, O you mortal engines, whose rude throats
The immortal Jove’s dead clamours counterfeit,
Farewell! Othello’s occupation’s gone!
IAGOIs’t possible, my lord?
OTHELLOVillain, be sure thou prove my love a whore,
Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof: 360
Or by the worth of man’s eternal soul,
Thou hadst been better have been born a dog
Than answer my waked wrath!
IAGOIs’t come to this?
OTHELLOMake me to see’t; or, at the least, so prove it,
That the probation bear no hinge nor loop
To hang a doubt on; or woe upon thy life!
IAGOMy noble lord,–
OTHELLOIf thou dost slander her and torture me,
Never pray more; abandon all remorse;
On horror’s head horrors accumulate; 370
Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amazed;
For nothing canst thou to damnation add
Greater than that.
IAGOO grace! O heaven forgive me!
Are you a man? have you a soul or sense?
God be wi’ you; take mine office. O wretched fool.
That livest to make thine honesty a vice!
O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O world,
To be direct and honest is not safe.
I thank you for this profit; and from hence
I’ll love no friend, sith love breeds such offence. 380
OTHELLONay, stay: thou shouldst be honest.
IAGOI should be wise, for honesty’s a fool
And loses that it works for.
OTHELLOBy the world,
I think my wife be honest and think she is not;
I think that thou art just and think thou art not.
I’ll have some proof. Her name, that was as fresh
As Dian’s visage, is now begrimed and black
As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,
I’ll not endure it. Would I were satisfied! 390
IAGOI see, sir, you are eaten up with passion:
I do repent me that I put it to you.
You would be satisfied?
OTHELLOWould! nay, I will.
IAGOAnd may: but, how? how satisfied, my lord?
Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on–
Behold her topp’d?
OTHELLODeath and damnation! O!
IAGOIt were a tedious difficulty, I think,
To bring them to that prospect: damn them then,
If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster
More than their own! What then? how then?
What shall I say? Where’s satisfaction?
It is impossible you should see this,
Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,
As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say,
If imputation and strong circumstances,
Which lead directly to the door of truth,
Will give you satisfaction, you may have’t.
OTHELLOGive me a living reason she’s disloyal.
IAGOI do not like the office: 400
But, sith I am enter’d in this cause so far,
Prick’d to’t by foolish honesty and love,
I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;
And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
I could not sleep.
There are a kind of men so loose of soul,
That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs:
One of this kind is Cassio:
In sleep I heard him say ‘Sweet Desdemona,
Let us be wary, let us hide our loves;’
And then, sir, would he gripe and wring my hand,
Cry ‘O sweet creature!’ and then kiss me hard,
As if he pluck’d up kisses by the roots
That grew upon my lips: then laid his leg
Over my thigh, and sigh’d, and kiss’d; and then
Cried ‘Cursed fate that gave thee to the Moor!’
OTHELLOO monstrous! monstrous!
IAGONay, this was but his dream.
OTHELLOBut this denoted a foregone conclusion:
‘Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream.
IAGOAnd this may help to thicken other proofs 420
That do demonstrate thinly.
OTHELLOI’ll tear her all to pieces.
IAGONay, but be wise: yet we see nothing done;
She may be honest yet. Tell me but this,
Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief
Spotted with strawberries in your wife’s hand?
OTHELLOI gave her such a one; ’twas my first gift.
IAGOI know not that; but such a handkerchief–
I am sure it was your wife’s–did I to-day
See Cassio wipe his beard with.
OTHELLOIf it be that–
IAGOIf it be that, or any that was hers, 430
It speaks against her with the other proofs.
OTHELLOO, that the slave had forty thousand lives!
One is too poor, too weak for my revenge.
Now do I see ’tis true. Look here, Iago;
All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven.
‘Tis gone.
Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell!
Yield up, O love, thy crown and hearted throne
To tyrannous hate! Swell, bosom, with thy fraught,
For ’tis of aspics’ tongues!
IAGOYet be content.
OTHELLOO, blood, blood, blood!
IAGOPatience, I say; your mind perhaps may change.
OTHELLONever, Iago: Like to the Pontic sea,
Whose icy current and compulsive course
Ne’er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on
To the Propontic and the Hellespont,
Even so my bloody thoughts, with violent pace,
Shall ne’er look back, ne’er ebb to humble love,
Till that a capable and wide revenge 450
Swallow them up. Now, by yond marble heaven,
In the due reverence of a sacred vow
I here engage my words.
IAGODo not rise yet.
Witness, you ever-burning lights above,
You elements that clip us round about,
Witness that here Iago doth give up
The execution of his wit, hands, heart,
To wrong’d Othello’s service! Let him command,
And to obey shall be in me remorse,
What bloody business ever.
They rise.
OTHELLOI greet thy love,
Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteous,
And will upon the instant put thee to’t: 460
Within these three days let me hear thee say
That Cassio’s not alive.
IAGOMy friend is dead; ’tis done at your request:
But let her live.
OTHELLODamn her, lewd minx! O, damn her!
Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw,
To furnish me with some swift means of death
For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant.
IAGOI am your own for ever.

Othello, Act 3, Scene 4


Explanatory Notes for Act 3, Scene 3

From Othello. Ed. Brainerd Kellogg. New York: Clark & Maynard.

Abbreviations. — A.-S. = Anglo-Saxon: M.E. = Middle English (from the 13th to the 15th century) ; Fr. = French ; Ger. = German ; Gr. = Greek ; Cf. = compare (Lat. confer) ; Abbott refers to the excellent Shakespearean Grammar of Dr. Abbott; Schmidt, to Dr. Schmidt’s invaluable Shakespeare Lexicon.


12. His estrangement shall not be more serious than policy demands.

16. Increase from circumstances.

23. Hawks were tamed by being kept awake.

24. Shrift, usually confession; here a confessional.

64, sq. He has hardly committed any fault which would be popularly considered worthy of a personal punishment, except that, at these times, we have to sacrifice our best men to conciliate the enemy.

70. Mammering, desisting, standing in suspense. Possibly mammer was like stammer, onomatopoetic.

76. This is no great suit after all,

79. Peculiar, private,

83. An alarming thing to grant.

113. Purse, to wrinkle up, like a purse drawn together.

118. And, for, and, because.

123. Close delations, secret informations.

129. On that principle, Cassio is honest.

140. Leets, manor courts.

146. Vicious, wrong.

153. Iago’s pretended reluctance excites Othello.

173. Fineless, infinite.

178. Still, always. See note on i. 3, 129.

180. Resolved, set free from doubt.

182. Exsufflicate, swollen, puffed out.

183. Matching, similar to.

210. If oak be the right reading, the reference is to the grain of the wood; but Staunton plausibly conjectures hawk.

212. Of, about, concerning.

215. Jot, Anglicized form of iota, the smallest Greek letter.

234. In the case I am putting.

237. Fall, begin. Cf. “Before you fall to play.” — Hamlet, V. 2, 216.

238. Happily, haply, perchance,

249. Means, adopted by him to gain his end.

250. Strain his entertainment, beg for him to be employed.

253. Consider my fears officious.

260. Haggard, a wild, untrained hawk.

261. Jesses, straps by which hawks’ legs were tied.

262. Falconers let fly the hawk against the wind. If down or into the wind, it seldom returns.

265. Chamberers, men of fashion or of intrigue.

274. Prerogativ’d, exempted from the evil.

275. Forked plague, the horns supposed to grow on the forehead of one whose wife had been unfaithful. The sentence is complicated by the insertion of the antecedent then.

276. Quicken, are born.

278. Here the better genius speaks.

287. Napkin, for handkerchief. “Dip their napkins in his sacred blood.” (Julius Caesar, iii. 2. 138).

296. Ta’en out, subsequent allusions (sc. 4, 190) prove this to mean copied.

319. Be not acknown on ‘t, do not confess to the knowledge of it.

328. Act, action, operation.
Poppy, whence opium is made. Mandragora, mandrake. The root when “torn out of the earth” (Romeo and Juliet, iv. 3, 47) was thought to resemble the human figure, and to cause madness and death.

333. Owedst, ownest.

335. Avaunt, begone. Der. en avant.

369. Abandon remorse, act without regarding conscience.
The word remorse is often synonymous with pity, but not here.

376. Your simplicity of mind is here a defect.

380. Sith, since.

387. Dian’s visage, the face of the moon.

402. Prick’d, instigated.

439. Fraught, load.

443. One of the Moor’s nautical images. The Euxine pours into the Mediterranean a steady stream. The current from the Atlantic is also perpetual. Yet the volume of water in the Mediterranean does not increase — the influx only compensating for the evaporation caused by the sun.

454. Clip, originally to hold tight; hence (1) to embrace closely, and (2) to draw closely together the edges of a pair of shears.


How to cite the explanatory notes:Shakespeare, William. Othello. Ed. Brainerd Kellogg. New York: Clark & Maynard, 1892.